Nř grein Ý JGR um ÷sku og ÷skufok vegna eldgossins Ý Eyjafjallaj÷kli 2010

High levels of particulate matter in Iceland due to direct ash emissions by the Eyjafjallaj÷kull eruption and resuspension of deposited ash
Hßr styrkur svifryks vegna ÷skufalls og ÷skufoks Ý kj÷lfar eldgossins Ý Eyjafjallaj÷kli

Throstur Thorsteinsson
Environment and Natural Resources and Institute of Earth Sciences, University of Iceland, ReykjavÝk, Iceland
Thorsteinn Jˇhannsson
The Environment Agency of Iceland, ReykjavÝk, Iceland
Andreas Stohl and Nina I. Kristiansen
Norwegian Institute for Air Research, Kjeller, Norway

JOURNAL OF GEOPHYSICAL RESEARCH, VOL. 117, B00C05, 9 PP., 2012

Citation: Thorsteinsson, T., T. Jˇhannsson, A. Stohl, and N. I. Kristiansen (2012), High levels of particulate matter in Iceland due to direct ash emissions by the Eyjafjallaj÷kull eruption and resuspension of deposited ash, J. Geophys. Res., 117, B00C05, doi:10.1029/2011JB008756.

Abstract / ┴grip (athugi­ a­ mj÷g grˇf ■Ý­ing ß ßgripi hÚr a­ ne­an)

ŮŠr hŠttur sem ste­ja a­ ■eim sem b˙a nßlŠgt eldfjalli eru margar hverja vel ■ekktar, eins og glˇandi hraun og ef eldfjalli­ er undir j÷kli j÷kulhlaup. Hinsvegar er minna vita­ um ■ß hŠttu sem kann a­ stafa af miklu magni af fÝnger­ri ÷sku Ý lofti, hvort heldur um er a­ rŠ­a ÷skufall e­a ÷skustorm. Eldgosi­ Ý Eyjafjallaj÷kli, sem stˇ­ frß 14. aprÝl til 20. maÝ 2010, framleiddi miki­ af ÷sku. Eftir a­ gosi lauk var enn miki­ af fÝnger­ri ÷sku Ý lofti (svifryk) vegna ÷skustorma. Sˇlarhringsme­altal svifryks (PM10) Ý VÝk fˇr Ý 1230 μg m−3, sem er 25 sinnum meira en heilsuverndarm÷rkin segja til um, ■ann 7. maÝ 2010. Ůann dag nß­u 10-mÝn me­alt÷l yfir 13,000 μg m−3. Jafnvel eftir a­ gosi lauk mŠldust grÝ­arlega hß gildi, 8000 μg m−3 (10-mÝn) og 900 μg m−3 (sˇlarhringsme­altal), vegna ÷skustorma. ═ ReykjavÝk, sem er 125 km Ý VNV frß Eyjafjallaj÷kli, mŠldist PM10 yfir 2000 μg m−3 (10-mÝn) Ý ÷skustormi ■ann 4. j˙nÝ, 2010, en sß styrkur er nŠgjanlega mikill til a­ rÚttlŠta lokun flugvalla. Ůessi rannsˇkn sřnir a­ ÷skufok er mj÷g mikilvŠgt og Štti a­ huga a­ alveg eins og beinu ÷skufalli. Ískufok hefur ßhrif ß loftgŠ­i, en einnig veruleg ßhrif ß lÝkanreikninga af dreifingu ÷sku, ■ar sem flest lÝk÷n taka ekki ÷skufok me­ Ý reikninginn.

The dangers to people living near a volcano due to lava and pyroclastic flows, and, on glacier- or snow-covered volcanoes, j÷kulhlaups, are well known. The level of risk to human health due to high concentrations of ash from direct emission and resuspension from the ground is, however, not as well known. The eruption at Eyjafjallaj÷kull, 14 April to 20 May 2010, produced abundant particulate matter due to its explosive eruption style. Even after the volcanic activity ceased, high particulate matter (PM) concentrations were still measured on several occasions, due to resuspended ash. The 24 hour mean concentration of PM10 in the small town of VÝk, 38 km SE of the volcano, reached 1230 μg m−3, which is about 25 times the health limit, on 7 May 2010, with 10 min average values over 13,000 μg m−3. Even after the eruption ceased, values as high as 8000 μg m−3 (10 min), and 900 μg m−3 (24 h), were measured because of resuspension of freshly deposited fine ash. In ReykjavÝk, 125 km WNW of the volcano, the PM10 concentration reached over 2000 μg m−3 (10 min) during an ash storm on 4 June 2010, which should have warranted airport closure. Summarizing, our study reveals the importance of ash resuspension compared to direct volcanic ash emissions. This likely has implications for air quality but could also have detrimental effects on the quality of ash dispersion model predictions, which so far generally do not include this secondary source of volcanic ash.

┴hugasamir geta fengi­ eintak af greininni me­ ■vÝ a­ senda mÚr t÷lvupˇst.


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